Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.
1. The most scholarly viewpoint on how criminal justice professionals learn ethical and unethical behavior is the _______ approach.
A. differential
B. rational-choice C. values-added D. values-learned
2. With the passage of _______, community police departments were allocated money by Congress. A. Neighborhood Watch
B. Alternative Policing Strategy
C. the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994
D. the President’s Crime Commission of 1965
3. The _______ theory of leadership emphasizes the relationship between the leader and his or her subordinates.
A. learning
B. contingency C. train
D. objective
4. Which of the following is universally agreed upon as part of a police officer’s domain? A. Discretion
B. Acceptance of gratuities
C. Differential treatment of special groups
D. Public service
5. Which of the following statements about police officer loyalty is true? A. The blue curtain of secrecy is breaking down.
B. Loyalty is extended in a rational way.
C. The code of silence is mostly a myth.
D. Departmental loyalty is mostly a negative factor because it leads to corruption and cover-ups.
6. _______ justice is associated with the determination of and methods of punishment. A. Corrective
B. Natural
C. Distributive
D. Commutative
7. If an officer is found negligent, his or her supervisor can be sued in civil court. This is called A. criminal culpability.
B. ethical liability.
C. vicarious liability.
D. guilt by association.
8. Which of the following drives police actions the most? A. Police subculture
B. Code of ethics
C. Rule book
D. Political pressure
9. The primary mission of policing established by Sir Robert Peel was to A. prevent crime and disorder.
B. control riots.
C. implement a police hierarchy.
D. investigate crimes.
10. Abuse-of-authority rules are found in A. the Police Code of Conduct.
B. each state’s penal code.
C. the Bill of Rights.
D. Title 42 of the U.S. Code.
11. Which of the following actions is consistent with the police subculture? A. Respect for individual rights
B. Use of illegal investigation tactics
C. Restraint in the use of force
D. Consistent truth-telling
12. The watchman style of policing evolved due to A. urbanization.
B. the Gold Rush of 1849.
C. the Boston Tea Party.
D. railroad construction.
13. “Hostile environment” and “quid pro quo sexual harassment” were defined in A. Miranda v. Arizona.
B. Katz v. Dole.
C. Katz v. Siempre.
D. Dole v. Ward.
14. The idea that an employee’s attitude toward work is largely influenced by his or her individual characteristics comes from the _______ model.
A. importation B. trait
C. environmental D. ethics
15. The Wickersham Commission was established by President A. Nixon.
B. Eisenhower.
C. Kennedy.
D. Hoover.
16. The tendency to rationalize one’s behavior, avoid pain, gain rewards, and weigh risks and benefits while learning unethical behavior is explained by the _______ theory.
A. noble-cause B. legitimacy
C. values-learned D. rational-choice
17. The _______ system was a politician-centered system of policing. A. progressive
B. alderman
C. Peelian
D. community-policing
18. The alderman system of policing, established during the nineteenth Century, was considered A. the best deterrent to organized crime.
B. highly disorganized and decentralized.
C. organized and efficient.
D. the model that modern police forces should follow.
19. The formal law enforcement code of ethics promoted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police is a code that
A. provides principles or guidelines that relate to the value system of the organization. B. generally describes the tenets of professional conduct.
C. specifies ideal behavior in an aspirational manner.
D. provides mandatory rules of conduct that can serve as a basis of discipline.
20. Coercive interrogation techniques were declared improper by A. Roe v. Wade.
B. Mapp v. Ohio.
C. Miranda v. Arizona.
D. Walker v. Katz.